Annotation of Chromatin States in 66 Complete Mouse Epigenomes During Development

Arjan van der Velde, Kaili Fan, Junko Tsuji, Jill Moore, Michael Purcaro, Henry Pratt, Zhiping Weng .
Communication Biology.   
The morphologically and functionally distinct cell types of a multicellular organism are maintained by epigenomes and gene expression programs. Phase III of the ENCODE Project profiled 66 mouse epigenomes across twelve tissues at daily intervals from embryonic day 10.5 to birth. Applying the ChromHMM algorithm to these epigenomes, we annotated eighteen chromatin states with characteristics of promoters, enhancers, transcribed regions, repressed regions, and quiescent regions throughout the developmental time course. Our integrative analyses delineate the tissue specificity and developmental trajectory of the loci in these chromatin states. Approximately 0.3% of each epigenome is assigned to a bivalent chromatin state, which harbors both active marks and the repressive mark H3K27me3. Highly evolutionarily conserved, these loci are enriched in silencers bound by Polycomb Repressive Complex proteins and the transcription start sites of their silenced target genes. This collection of chromatin state assignments provides a useful resource for studying mammalian development.