Regulation of RNA editing by RNA-binding proteins in human cells.

Quinones-Valdez G, Tran SS, Jun HI, Bahn JH, Yang EW, Zhan L, Brummer A, Wei X, Van Nostrand EL, Pratt GA, Yeo GW, Graveley BR, Xiao X.
Communications biology. 2019;2:19.
Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) editing, mediated by the ADAR enzymes, diversifies the transcriptome by altering RNA sequences. Recent studies reported global changes in RNA editing in disease and development. Such widespread editing variations necessitate an improved understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of RNA editing. Here, we study the roles of >200 RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) in mediating RNA editing in two human cell lines. Using RNA-sequencing and global protein-RNA binding data, we identify a number of RBPs as key regulators of A-to-I editing. These RBPs, such as TDP-43, DROSHA, NF45/90 and Ro60, mediate editing through various mechanisms including regulation of ADAR1 expression, interaction with ADAR1, and binding to Alu elements. We highlight that editing regulation by Ro60 is consistent with the global up-regulation of RNA editing in systemic lupus erythematosus. Additionally, most key editing regulators act in a cell type-specific manner. Together, our work provides insights for the regulatory mechanisms of RNA editing.