The EN-TEx resource of multi-tissue personal epigenomes & variant-impact models
- Understanding how genetic variants impact molecular phenotypes is a key goal of functional genomics, currently hindered by reliance on a single haploid reference genome. Here, we present the EN-TEx resource of personal epigenomes, for ∼25 tissues and >10 assays in four donors (>1500 open-access functional genomic and proteomic datasets, in total). Each dataset is mapped to a matched, diploid personal genome, which has long-read phasing and structural variants. The mappings enable us to identify >1 million loci with allele-specific behavior. These loci exhibit coordinated epigenetic activity along haplotypes and less conservation than matched, non-allele-specific loci, in a fashion broadly paralleling tissue-specificity. Surprisingly, they can be accurately modelled just based on local nucleotide-sequence context. Combining EN-TEx with existing genome annotations reveals strong associations between allele-specific and GWAS loci and enables models for transferring known eQTLs to difficult-to-profile tissues. Overall, EN-TEx provides rich data and generalizable models for more accurate personal functional genomics.